Literature

Literature is a broad term that can refer to any written work, but it is most commonly used to describe works of fiction, poetry, and drama. Literature is often characterized by its use of language, its focus on human experience, and its ability to transport us to other worlds.

Some of the most famous works of literature include:

Novels: Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, Moby-Dick by Herman Melville, Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky, One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez, Beloved by Toni Morrison Short stories: “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson, “The Tell-Tale Heart” by Edgar Allan Poe, “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, “Hills Like White Elephants” by Ernest Hemingway, “Interpreter of Maladies” by Jhumpa Lahiri Poems: “Ode to a Nightingale” by John Keats, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” by T.S. Eliot, “Howl” by Allen Ginsberg, “I, Too, Sing America” by Langston Hughes, “Diving into the Wreck” by Adrienne Rich Plays: Hamlet by William Shakespeare, A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett, Fences by August Wilson

Literature can be enjoyed for many reasons. It can entertain us, educate us, and challenge us to think about the world in new ways. Literature can also help us to understand ourselves and others better.

Here are some of the benefits of reading literature:

Improved vocabulary and grammar: Reading literature exposes us to new words and phrases, and it can help us to improve our grammar and writing skills. Increased knowledge and understanding: Literature can teach us about different cultures, time periods, and historical events. It can also help us to understand different perspectives and ways of thinking. Enhanced creativity and imagination: Literature can help us to develop our creativity and imagination. By reading about different worlds and characters, we can learn to think outside the box and come up with new ideas. Increased empathy and compassion: Literature can help us to develop empathy and compassion for others. By reading about the experiences of different characters, we can learn to see the world from different perspectives and to understand the challenges that others face.

Literature is a valuable part of our culture, and it is something that everyone should enjoy. If you are looking for a new book to read, there are many great resources available to help you find something that you will enjoy.


The history of the beginning of literature is a complex one, and it is difficult to pinpoint an exact date or time when it began. However, there are some key events and developments that can be traced back to its early origins.

One of the earliest known forms of literature is oral storytelling. This is when people would tell stories to each other out loud, without writing them down. Oral storytelling has been around for thousands of years, and it is still practiced today in many cultures around the world.

The invention of writing was a major turning point in the history of literature. It allowed people to record their stories and share them with others more easily. The earliest known writing systems developed in Mesopotamia and Egypt around 3500-3000 BC.

The first known works of literature were religious texts, such as the Epic of Gilgamesh from Mesopotamia and the Book of the Dead from Egypt. These texts were written on clay tablets and papyrus scrolls, respectively.

Over time, people began to write other types of literature, such as poetry, fiction, and plays. Some of the earliest known works of fiction include the Egyptian Tale of Sinuhe and the Sumerian Epic of Enuma Elish.

The development of literature continued throughout the ancient world. The Greeks and Romans made significant contributions to literature, producing works such as the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer, the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the comedies of Aristophanes.

Literature continued to develop throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Some of the most famous works of literature from this period include the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, the Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, and the plays of William Shakespeare.

Literature has continued to evolve and grow in the centuries since Shakespeare. Today, there are many different genres and styles of literature, from traditional novels and poems to experimental works that defy categorization.

The history of literature is a long and rich one, and it is impossible to do it justice in a short essay. However, I hope this brief overview has given you a sense of the many different forms and expressions that literature has taken over the centuries.


There are many different types of literature, each with its own unique characteristics. Some of the most common types of literature include:

Fiction: Fiction is a type of literature that is not based on real events. It can be about anything the author’s imagination can create, from realistic stories about everyday life to fantastical stories about magical worlds. Poetry: Poetry is a type of literature that uses language in a creative and expressive way. Poems often use rhyme, rhythm, and imagery to create a particular effect. Drama: Drama is a type of literature that is meant to be performed on stage. Plays typically involve characters, dialogue, and action. Nonfiction: Nonfiction is a type of literature that is based on real events and people. Nonfiction can include biographies, histories, essays, and articles. Children’s literature: Children’s literature is a type of literature that is written specifically for children. It can include picture books, chapter books, and young adult novels.

Within these main categories, there are many different subgenres of literature. For example, fiction can be further divided into subgenres such as mystery, romance, science fiction, and fantasy. Poetry can be divided into subgenres such as free verse, sonnets, and haiku. Drama can be divided into subgenres such as tragedy, comedy, and musical. Nonfiction can be divided into subgenres such as biography, history, essay, and memoir. Children’s literature can be divided into subgenres such as picture books, chapter books, and young adult novels.

No matter what your interests are, there is sure to be a type of literature that you will enjoy. Reading is a great way to learn about different cultures, time periods, and historical events. It is also a great way to develop your imagination and creativity.

Here are some examples of popular works of literature from each main category:

Fiction: Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, Moby-Dick by Herman Melville, Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky, One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez, Beloved by Toni Morrison Poetry: “Ode to a Nightingale” by John Keats, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” by T.S. Eliot, “Howl” by Allen Ginsberg, “I, Too, Sing America” by Langston Hughes, “Diving into the Wreck” by Adrienne Rich Drama: Hamlet by William Shakespeare, A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett, Fences by August Wilson Nonfiction: Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl, The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X and Alex Haley, A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking, The Omnivore’s Dilemma by Michael Pollan, Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates Children’s literature: The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle, Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak, Charlotte’s Web by E.B. White, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by J.K. Rowling, The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins

These are just a few examples, of course. There are many other great works of literature available to read and enjoy.


The genres of literature are broad categories that are used to classify different types of writing. The most common genres of literature are:

Fiction: Fiction is a type of writing that is not based on real events. It can be about anything the author’s imagination can create, from realistic stories about everyday life to fantastical stories about magical worlds. Nonfiction: Nonfiction is a type of writing that is based on real events and people. Nonfiction can include biographies, histories, essays, and articles. Poetry: Poetry is a type of writing that uses language in a creative and expressive way. Poems often use rhyme, rhythm, and imagery to create a particular effect. Drama: Drama is a type of writing that is meant to be performed on stage. Plays typically involve characters, dialogue, and action.

Within these main categories, there are many different subgenres of literature. For example, fiction can be further divided into subgenres such as mystery, romance, science fiction, and fantasy. Nonfiction can be divided into subgenres such as biography, history, essay, and memoir. Poetry can be divided into subgenres such as free verse, sonnets, and haiku. Drama can be divided into subgenres such as tragedy, comedy, and musical.

Here is a more detailed list of some of the most common subgenres of literature:

Fiction

Mystery Romance Science fiction Fantasy Historical fiction Thriller Horror Western Young adult fiction

Nonfiction

Biography Autobiography History Essay Memoir Travelogue Science writing Sports writing Self-help

Poetry

Free verse Sonnet Haiku Limerick Ballad Epic Lyric

Drama

Tragedy Comedy Musical Historical drama Farce Melodrama

These are just a few examples, of course. There are many other subgenres of literature, and new subgenres are constantly emerging.

No matter what your interests are, there is sure to be a subgenre of literature that you will enjoy. Reading is a great way to learn about different cultures, time periods, and historical events. It is also a great way to develop your imagination and creativity.


Literary arrays, also known as literary devices, are techniques that writers use to enhance their writing and make it more effective. Literary arrays can be used to create a variety of effects, such as making the writing more vivid, engaging, or persuasive.

There are many different types of literary arrays, but some of the most common include:

Simile: A simile is a comparison of two things using the words “like” or “as.” For example, “Her eyes were like pools of sapphire.” Metaphor: A metaphor is a comparison of two things without using the words “like” or “as.” For example, “Her eyes were pools of sapphire.” Personification: Personification is the giving of human qualities to non-human things. For example, “The wind whispered through the trees.” Hyperbole: Hyperbole is an exaggeration for effect. For example, “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.” Understatement: Understatement is the opposite of hyperbole. It is a way of minimizing something for effect. For example, “It was a bit chilly outside.” Alliteration: Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. For example, “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.” Assonance: Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds within words. For example, “I see the ships sail out to sea.” Onomatopoeia: Onomatopoeia is the use of words that sound like what they mean. For example, “The boom of the cannon echoed through the valley.”

Literary arrays can be used in any type of writing, but they are particularly common in fiction, poetry, and drama. Writers use literary arrays to create a variety of effects, such as making the writing more vivid, engaging, or persuasive.

Here are some examples of how literary arrays can be used in writing:

Simile: “Her eyes were like pools of sapphire.” Metaphor: “Her eyes were pools of sapphire.” Personification: “The wind whispered through the trees.” Hyperbole: “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.” Understatement: “It was a bit chilly outside.” Alliteration: “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.” Assonance: “I see the ships sail out to sea.” Onomatopoeia: “The boom of the cannon echoed through the valley.”

These are just a few examples of the many different ways that literary arrays can be used in writing. By using literary arrays effectively, writers can make their writing more engaging, memorable, and persuasive.


Literary criticism is the interpretation, analysis, and judgment of a work of literature. It is a broad field that encompasses a wide range of approaches, from traditional close reading to more contemporary theoretical frameworks.

Literary critics may examine a work of literature from a variety of perspectives, including its historical context, its thematic concerns, its formal characteristics, and its cultural impact. They may also compare and contrast different works of literature, or explore the relationship between literature and other art forms, such as film or painting.

Literary criticism can be used to achieve a number of different goals. It can help us to better understand and appreciate a work of literature. It can also help us to develop our own critical thinking skills. And it can contribute to our understanding of the world around us.

Here are some examples of literary criticism:

A critic might analyze the use of symbolism in a poem to explore its meaning. A critic might examine the social and political context of a novel to understand its themes. A critic might compare and contrast two different versions of a play to see how different directors have interpreted it. A critic might explore the relationship between a film and the novel it is based on. A critic might write about the cultural impact of a particular genre of literature, such as science fiction or romance novels.

Literary criticism can be a challenging subject, but it is also a rewarding one. By studying literary criticism, we can learn to appreciate literature on a deeper level and develop our own critical thinking skills.

Here are some of the benefits of reading literary criticism:

It can help you to better understand and appreciate a work of literature. It can help you to develop your own critical thinking skills. It can contribute to your understanding of the world around you. It can expose you to new and different perspectives on literature. It can help you to become a more informed reader and writer.

If you are interested in learning more about literary criticism, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different critical approaches. You can also take courses in literary criticism at many colleges and universities.


Persian literature is one of the oldest and richest literatures in the world, dating back over 2,500 years. It is known for its poetry, prose, and drama, and has had a profound influence on other literatures around the world.

Some of the most famous works of Persian literature include:

Shahnameh by Ferdowsi: An epic poem that tells the story of Iran from its mythical origins to the 7th century AD. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Omar Khayyam: A collection of quatrains that are known for their philosophical and lyrical beauty. Golestan and Bustan by Sa’di: Two collections of prose and poetry that offer moral and ethical advice. Mathnawi by Rumi: A long poem that is considered to be one of the greatest works of Sufi mysticism. Conference of the Birds by Attar: A mystical poem that tells the story of a group of birds who journey to find the Simorgh, the king of all birds.

Persian literature has had a significant impact on other literatures around the world, including Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and Hindi literature. It has also been translated into many other languages, and has been enjoyed by readers all over the world.

Persian literature is characterized by its richness of language, its diversity of genres, and its depth of thought. It is a literature that has something to offer everyone, regardless of their interests or background.

Here are some of the reasons why Persian literature is important:

It is one of the oldest and richest literatures in the world. It has had a profound influence on other literatures around the world. It is characterized by its richness of language, its diversity of genres, and its depth of thought. It has something to offer everyone, regardless of their interests or background.

If you are interested in learning more about Persian literature, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in Persian literature at many colleges and universities.


Literature before Islam is a diverse and rich body of work that spans centuries and cultures. It includes poetry, prose, and drama from a variety of sources, including the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe.

Some of the most famous works of literature before Islam include:

Epic of Gilgamesh (Mesopotamia, c. 2100-1600 BC): An epic poem that tells the story of Gilgamesh, a demigod king who searches for immortality. Book of the Dead (Egypt, c. 1550-1070 BC): A collection of religious texts that were placed in tombs to guide the deceased through the afterlife. Old Testament (Hebrew Bible, c. 12th-1st centuries BC): A collection of religious texts that tell the story of the Hebrew people and their relationship with God. Iliad and Odyssey by Homer (Greece, c. 8th century BC): Epic poems that tell the stories of the Trojan War and the journey of Odysseus back home to Ithaca. Aeneid by Virgil (Rome, 29-19 BC): An epic poem that tells the story of Aeneas, a Trojan hero who travels to Italy and founds the Roman race.

These works of literature are just a few examples of the many great works that were written before Islam. They offer us a glimpse into the lives, beliefs, and values of people from different cultures and time periods.

Here are some of the ways that literature before Islam can be enjoyed and appreciated today:

We can learn about the history and culture of different civilizations through the literature they produced. We can gain insight into the human condition by reading about the experiences and emotions of people from different times and places. We can be entertained by the stories and characters that are found in this literature. We can develop our critical thinking skills by analyzing and interpreting these works of literature.

If you are interested in learning more about literature before Islam, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in this area at many colleges and universities.


Literature after Islam is a vast and diverse field, encompassing works from a wide range of genres, including poetry, prose, and drama. It is characterized by its richness of language, its diversity of themes, and its depth of thought.

Some of the most famous works of literature after Islam include:

The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Omar Khayyam (1048-1131): A collection of quatrains that are known for their philosophical and lyrical beauty. The Conference of the Birds by Attar (1145-1221): A mystical poem that tells the story of a group of birds who journey to find the Simorgh, the king of all birds. The Mathnawi by Rumi (1207-1273): A long poem that is considered to be one of the greatest works of Sufi mysticism. The Gulistan and Bustan by Sa’di (1203-1292): Two collections of prose and poetry that offer moral and ethical advice. One Thousand and One Nights (anonymous): A collection of folktales and fables that is known for its rich imagination and its vivid storytelling.

These works of literature are just a few examples of the many great works that were written after Islam. They offer us a glimpse into the lives, beliefs, and values of people from different cultures and time periods.

Literature after Islam has had a profound influence on other literatures around the world, including Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and Hindi literature. It has also been translated into many other languages, and has been enjoyed by readers all over the world.

Here are some of the ways that literature after Islam can be enjoyed and appreciated today:

We can learn about the history and culture of different civilizations through the literature they produced. We can gain insight into the human condition by reading about the experiences and emotions of people from different times and places. We can be entertained by the stories and characters that are found in this literature. We can develop our critical thinking skills by analyzing and interpreting these works of literature.

If you are interested in learning more about literature after Islam, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in this area at many colleges and universities.


Classic literature in Iran is a vast and diverse field, encompassing works from a wide range of genres, including poetry, prose, and drama. It is characterized by its richness of language, its diversity of themes, and its depth of thought.

Some of the most famous works of classic literature in Iran include:

Shahnameh by Ferdowsi (935-1020): An epic poem that tells the story of Iran from its mythical origins to the 7th century AD. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Omar Khayyam (1048-1131): A collection of quatrains that are known for their philosophical and lyrical beauty. Conference of the Birds by Farid ud-Din Attar (1145-1221): A mystical poem that tells the story of a group of birds who journey to find the Simorgh, the king of all birds. Mathnawi by Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273): A long poem that is considered to be one of the greatest works of Sufi mysticism. Gulistan and Bustan by Sa’di (1203-1292): Two collections of prose and poetry that offer moral and ethical advice. One Thousand and One Nights (anonymous): A collection of folktales and fables that is known for its rich imagination and its vivid storytelling.

These works of literature are just a few examples of the many great works that are considered to be classic literature in Iran. They offer us a glimpse into the lives, beliefs, and values of people from different cultures and time periods.

Classic literature in Iran has had a profound influence on Iranian culture and society. It has shaped the way that Iranians think about themselves, their world, and their place in it. It has also inspired generations of writers, artists, and musicians.

Here are some of the ways that classic literature in Iran can be enjoyed and appreciated today:

We can learn about the history and culture of Iran through its classic literature. We can gain insight into the human condition by reading about the experiences and emotions of characters from different times and places. We can be entertained by the stories and characters that are found in classic Iranian literature. We can develop our critical thinking skills by analyzing and interpreting these works of literature.

If you are interested in learning more about classic literature in Iran, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in this area at many colleges and universities.

I encourage you to explore the rich and diverse world of classic Iranian literature. You will not be disappointed.


Iranian literature is a rich and diverse tradition that dates back over 2,500 years. It encompasses a wide range of genres, including poetry, prose, and drama.

Some of the most common types of Iranian literature include:

Poetry: Persian poetry is known for its beauty, complexity, and sophistication. Some of the most famous Persian poets include Ferdowsi, Rumi, and Hafez. Prose: Iranian prose literature includes a wide range of genres, such as fiction, non-fiction, and historical works. Some of the most famous Persian prose writers include Sa’di, Attar, and Nizami Ganjavi. Drama: Iranian drama has a long and rich history, dating back to the pre-Islamic era. Some of the most famous Iranian playwrights include Ferdowsi, Rumi, and Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.

In addition to these main genres, there are many other types of Iranian literature, such as epics, folktales, and religious texts.

Here are some examples of specific works of Iranian literature that represent different genres:

Poetry: Shahnameh by Ferdowsi, Mathnawi by Rumi, Divan of Hafez Prose: Gulistan and Bustan by Sa’di, Conference of the Birds by Attar, Layla and Majnun by Nizami Ganjavi Drama: Rostam and Sohrab by Ferdowsi, Rumi’s Masnavi: A Selection of Episodes in Dramatic Form, The Play of the Blind by Naser al-Din Shah Qajar

Iranian literature has had a profound influence on other literatures around the world, including Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and Hindi literature. It has also been translated into many other languages, and has been enjoyed by readers all over the world.

Whether you are interested in poetry, prose, drama, or other genres, Iranian literature has something to offer everyone. I encourage you to explore this rich and diverse tradition.


Humorous literature is a genre of literature that aims to entertain and amuse the reader. It can be found in all cultures and time periods, and can take many different forms, including satire, parody, and slapstick comedy.

Some of the most famous examples of humorous literature in the world include:

Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes (Spain, 1605): A satirical novel that tells the story of a delusional knight-errant and his faithful squire. The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu (Japan, c. 1008): A classic novel that contains elements of humor, but also explores serious themes such as love, loss, and the nature of reality. The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (England, c. 1387-1400): A collection of stories told by pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Cathedral. Some of the stories are humorous, while others are more serious. Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen (England, 1813): A romantic novel that also contains elements of social satire. Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain (United States, 1884): A coming-of-age novel that is known for its humor and its social criticism.

Humorous literature in Iran has a long and rich history. Some of the most famous examples include:

The Mathnawi by Jalal al-Din Rumi (1207-1273): A long poem that contains many humorous passages. The Gulistan and Bustan by Sa’di (1203-1292): Two collections of prose and poetry that offer moral and ethical advice, but also contain elements of humor. The Conference of the Birds by Farid ud-Din Attar (1145-1221): A mystical poem that contains some humorous passages. One Thousand and One Nights (anonymous): A collection of folktales and fables that is known for its humor, as well as its rich imagination and vivid storytelling. The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Omar Khayyam (1048-1131): A collection of quatrains that are known for their philosophical and lyrical beauty, as well as their occasional humor.

Humorous literature can be enjoyed by people of all ages and backgrounds. It can provide us with a much-needed break from the stresses of everyday life, and it can also help us to see the world in a new and humorous light.

If you are looking for a good laugh, I encourage you to explore the world of humorous literature. There is something out there for everyone, regardless of your taste in humor.


Persian poetry is a rich and diverse tradition that dates back over 2,500 years. It is known for its beauty, complexity, and sophistication. Some of the most famous Persian poets include Ferdowsi, Rumi, and Hafez.

Here is a short example of a Persian poem:

The Bird

by Rumi

The bird said, “I am a bird of the boundless sky, I do not sing in a cage.”

I said, “I am a sky without a boundary, I do not sing in a bird.”

The bird said, “I am a bird of the boundless sky, I do not sing in a cage.”

This poem is a beautiful example of Rumi’s mystical style. It explores the relationship between the individual and the divine, and the idea that we are all interconnected.

Another famous example of a Persian poem is:

The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

by Omar Khayyam

A book of verses underneath the Bough, A jug of Wine, a loaf of Bread—and Thou Beside me singing in the Wilderness— Ah, Wilderness were Paradise enow!

This poem is known for its philosophical and lyrical beauty. It explores themes such as the meaning of life, the nature of reality, and the importance of enjoying the moment.

Persian poetry has had a profound influence on other literatures around the world, including Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and Hindi literature. It has also been translated into many other languages, and has been enjoyed by readers all over the world.

If you are interested in learning more about Persian poetry, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in Persian poetry at many colleges and universities.

I encourage you to explore this rich and diverse tradition. You will not be disappointed.


Persian literary themes are the recurring ideas and subjects that are explored in Persian literature. They reflect the values, beliefs, and experiences of the Persian people, and they have been shaped by the country’s rich history and culture.

Some of the most common Persian literary themes include:

Love: Love is a central theme in Persian literature, and it is explored in many different ways. From the passionate love of Rumi’s poetry to the unrequited love of Hafez’s ghazals, Persian literature offers a rich and diverse exploration of this universal human experience. Mysticism: Mysticism is another important theme in Persian literature. Many of the most famous Persian poets were mystics, and their work is infused with a deep spiritual longing. Rumi’s Mathnawi, for example, is a masterpiece of Sufi mysticism, and it offers readers a glimpse into the mystical experience. Social justice: Persian literature has a long tradition of social commentary. Many Persian poets and writers have used their work to address important social issues, such as poverty, inequality, and injustice. Sa’di’s Gulistan and Bustan, for example, are collections of prose and poetry that offer moral and ethical advice, but they also contain elements of social criticism. Heroism: Persian literature is also known for its epic heroes. The Shahnameh, Ferdowsi’s epic poem, tells the story of Iran’s history from its mythical origins to the 7th century AD. The Shahnameh is full of heroic characters, such as Rostam and Sohrab, who embody the ideals of courage, strength, and honor.

These are just a few of the many Persian literary themes that are explored in Persian literature. Persian literature is a rich and diverse tradition, and it offers readers a unique window into the Persian culture and mindset.

If you are interested in learning more about Persian literary themes, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in Persian literature at many colleges and universities.

I encourage you to explore this rich and diverse tradition. You will not be disappointed.


The best known Persian dictionary is the Dehkhoda Dictionary (فرهنگ دهخدا). It is a comprehensive dictionary of the Persian language, containing over 300,000 entries. The dictionary was compiled by Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda over a period of 40 years, and it was published in 1931. The Dehkhoda Dictionary is considered to be the most authoritative dictionary of the Persian language, and it is used by scholars and students alike.

Other well-known Persian dictionaries include:

Mo’in Dictionary (فرهنگ معین) Haim Dictionary (فرهنگ فارسی-انگلیسی) Farhang-e Farsi-ye Mo’aser (فرهنگ فارسی معاصر) Amīd Dictionary (فرهنگ اميد) Seyed Jamāli Dictionary (فرهنگ سید جعفری)

These dictionaries are all highly respected, and they offer a variety of features, such as definitions, synonyms, antonyms, and examples.

When choosing a Persian dictionary, it is important to consider your needs and preferences. If you are a student of the Persian language, you may want to choose a dictionary that is designed for learners. If you are a scholar or researcher, you may want to choose a dictionary that is more comprehensive.


Oral literature is a genre of literature that is spoken or sung as opposed to that which is written. It is a tradition that dates back to the earliest days of human history, and it can be found in all cultures around the world.

Oral literature includes a wide range of genres, such as folktales, myths, legends, epics, songs, and poems. It is often passed down from generation to generation, and it can evolve over time.

Oral literature is important because it reflects the culture and values of the people who create it. It can also be a powerful tool for education and entertainment.

Here are some examples of oral literature:

Folktales: Folktales are short stories that are often told to children. They often feature talking animals, magical creatures, and moral lessons. Myths: Myths are stories that explain the origins of the world, its natural phenomena, and its inhabitants. They often feature gods, goddesses, and other supernatural beings. Legends: Legends are stories that are based on real people and events, but they often contain elements of exaggeration and fantasy. Epics: Epics are long poems or stories that tell the tale of a hero or group of heroes. They often celebrate the values of the culture in which they are created. Songs: Songs are often used to tell stories, express emotions, and celebrate special occasions. Poems: Poems are short pieces of writing that use language in a creative and expressive way.

Oral literature can be enjoyed by people of all ages and backgrounds. It can provide us with a glimpse into the cultures of other people, and it can also help us to understand our own culture better.

If you are interested in learning more about oral literature, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also listen to recordings of oral literature from different cultures.

I encourage you to explore the rich and diverse world of oral literature. You will not be disappointed.


A proverb is a short, traditional saying that expresses a perceived truth based on common sense or experience. Proverbs are often metaphorical and use formulaic language. A proverbial phrase or a proverbial expression is a type of a conventional saying similar to proverbs and transmitted by oral tradition.

Proverbs are found in all cultures around the world, and they have been passed down from generation to generation for centuries. They are often used to teach moral lessons, offer advice, or simply to make a point in a humorous or thought-provoking way.

Here are some examples of proverbs:

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. A stitch in time saves nine. Curiosity killed the cat. Don’t count your chickens before they hatch. Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. It takes two to tango. Make hay while the sun shines. Rome wasn’t built in a day. The best things in life are free. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. You never know what you’ve got till it’s gone.

Proverbs can be used in a variety of contexts, such as in conversation, writing, and public speaking. They can be used to make a point more persuasive, to add humor or interest to a story, or simply to share a bit of wisdom.

Here are some of the benefits of using proverbs:

They can help you to make your point more persuasively. They can add humor or interest to your writing or speech. They can demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of different cultures. They can help you to connect with your audience on a deeper level.

If you are looking for a way to make your writing or speech more engaging, consider using a proverb. Proverbs are a powerful tool that can help you to communicate your ideas in a clear, concise, and memorable way.


Persian literature has a wide geographical distribution, encompassing the regions where the Persian language has been spoken and written throughout history. This includes Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Iraq. Persian literature has also been influenced by and has influenced other literatures in the region, such as Turkish, Urdu, and Hindi literature.

Here is a brief overview of the geographical distribution of Persian literature:

Iran: Iran is the birthplace of Persian literature, and it has produced some of the most famous Persian poets and writers, such as Ferdowsi, Rumi, and Hafez. Persian literature is an integral part of Iranian culture and identity. Afghanistan: Afghanistan has a long and rich tradition of Persian literature. Some of the most famous Afghan Persian poets and writers include Rumi, Balkhi, and Sanai. Persian literature is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, and it plays an important role in Afghan culture and identity. Tajikistan: Tajikistan is another country where Persian literature is an integral part of the culture and identity. Some of the most famous Tajik Persian poets and writers include Rudaki, Ibn Sina, and Sadriddin Ayni. Persian literature is the official language of Tajikistan. Uzbekistan: Uzbekistan has a long history of interaction with Persian culture, and Persian literature has had a significant influence on Uzbek literature. Some of the most famous Uzbek Persian poets and writers include Alisher Navoi, Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, and Abdulla Qodiri. Azerbaijan: Azerbaijan is another country where Persian literature has had a significant influence. Some of the most famous Azerbaijani Persian poets and writers include Nizami Ganjavi, Khaqani Shirvani, and Fuzuli. Persian literature is one of the two official languages of Azerbaijan. Turkmenistan: Turkmenistan has a long history of interaction with Persian culture, and Persian literature has had a significant influence on Turkmen literature. Some of the most famous Turkmen Persian poets and writers include Magtymguly Pyragy, Mahtumquli Fragi, and Seyitnazar Seydi. Iraq: Iraq has a long and rich tradition of Persian literature. Some of the most famous Iraqi Persian poets and writers include Mutanabbi, Abu Nuwas, and Ibn al-Mu’tazz. Persian literature has had a significant influence on Iraqi culture and identity.

In addition to these countries, Persian literature has also been translated into many other languages and is enjoyed by readers all over the world.

Persian literature is a diverse and rich tradition that has something to offer everyone. If you are interested in learning more about Persian literature, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in Persian literature at many colleges and universities.

I encourage you to explore this rich and diverse tradition. You will not be disappointed.


Modern Persian literature is the body of literature written in the Persian language from the late 19th century to the present day. It is characterized by its diversity of genres and styles, as well as its engagement with contemporary themes and issues.

Some of the key features of modern Persian literature include:

A focus on realism and social commentary: Many modern Persian writers have used their work to explore the social and political realities of their time. For example, Sadegh Hedayat’s novel “The Blind Owl” is a powerful critique of Iranian society in the early 20th century. A commitment to experimentation: Modern Persian writers have experimented with a variety of genres and styles, including poetry, prose, and drama. They have also incorporated elements from Western literature, such as realism and symbolism. A focus on the individual: Modern Persian literature often explores the inner lives of its characters, their hopes, dreams, and fears. This is in contrast to traditional Persian literature, which often focused on epic heroes and national themes.

Some of the most important figures in modern Persian literature include:

Sadegh Hedayat (1903-1951): Hedayat is considered to be one of the most important figures in modern Persian literature. His work is known for its realism, its psychological insights, and its social commentary. Nima Yushij (1895-1960): Yushij is considered to be the father of modern Persian poetry. He revolutionized Persian poetry by introducing new forms and techniques, such as free verse. Ahmad Shamlou (1925-2000): Shamlou was a poet, playwright, and translator. He is known for his lyrical poetry, his political activism, and his commitment to social justice. Simin Behbahani (1927-2014): Behbahani was a poet, activist, and educator. She is known for her feminist poetry and her advocacy for human rights. Mahmoud Dowlatabadi (born 1940): Dowlatabadi is a novelist, short story writer, and playwright. He is known for his realistic and often critical portrayals of Iranian society.

These are just a few examples of the many important figures in modern Persian literature. Modern Persian literature is a rich and diverse tradition that has something to offer everyone. If you are interested in learning more about modern Persian literature, there are many resources available to you. You can find books, articles, and websites on a variety of different topics. You can also take courses in modern Persian literature at many colleges and universities.


Here are some of the most famous people in the literature of Iran and the world:

Iran:

Ferdowsi (935-1020): Poet who wrote the Shahnameh, an epic poem that tells the story of Iran from its mythical origins to the 7th century AD. Rumi (1207-1273): Poet and mystic whose work is known for its beauty, depth, and spiritual insights. Hafez (1325-1390): Poet whose work is known for its lyrical beauty, its philosophical insights, and its erotic imagery. Sa’di (1203-1292): Poet who wrote the Gulistan and Bustan, two collections of prose and poetry that offer moral and ethical advice. Omar Khayyam (1048-1131): Poet and mathematician whose work is known for its philosophical insights and its hedonistic outlook on life.

World:

William Shakespeare (1564-1616): English playwright and poet who is considered to be one of the greatest writers of all time. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910): Russian novelist who wrote War and Peace and Anna Karenina, two of the most famous novels in the world. Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881): Russian novelist who wrote Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, two of the most influential novels in the world. Victor Hugo (1802-1885): French poet, novelist, and playwright who wrote Les Misérables and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, two of the most famous novels in the world. Jane Austen (1775-1817): English novelist who wrote Pride and Prejudice, Emma, and Sense and Sensibility, three of the most popular and beloved novels in the world.

Here are some of the most famous women in Iranian literature:

Simin Behbahani (1927-2014): Poet, activist, and educator who is known for her feminist poetry and her advocacy for human rights. Forugh Farrokhzad (1935-1967): Poet who is known for her candid and often controversial poetry about sexuality, gender roles, and social injustice. Simin Daneshvar (1921-2012): Novelist, short story writer, and translator who is considered to be one of the most important figures in modern Iranian literature. Goli Taraghi (1939-2006): Novelist, short story writer, and translator who is known for her realistic portrayals of Iranian society, particularly the lives of women. Azar Nafisi (born 1946): Novelist, essayist, and professor of literature who is known for her memoir Reading Lolita in Tehran, which chronicles her experiences teaching Western literature to female students in Iran during the Islamic Revolution.

These are just a few examples of the many famous people in the literature of Iran and the world, and the famous women in Iranian literature. Iranian literature is a rich and diverse tradition that has something to offer everyone. I encourage you to explore this rich and diverse tradition. You will not be disappointed.


Reference:

The Norton History of Literature in the West by Margaret Ann Swanson and Martin Coyle

The Columbia History of Literature in English by Wayne Booth and Alastair Fowler

The Oxford History of English Literature by David Duff and Pat Rogers

The Cambridge History of English Literature by Nicholas Roe and Nicholas Shrimpy

The Cambridge History of World Literature by David Damrosch

The Norton Anthology of World Literature by Martin Coyle, Jahan Ramazani, and David Damrosch

The Norton Reader: An Anthology of World Literature by Martin Coyle, Jahan Ramazani, and David Damrosch

The Oxford Anthology of World Literature by Judith Butler, et al.

The Cambridge Guide to World Literature by David Damrosch and Kevin Hart A History of World Literature by Martin Puchner Literature: A World in Words by Jeremy Treglown

The Story of Literature by Andrew Marr A History of the Novel by E.M. Forster

Books:

The Cambridge History of World Literature edited by David Damrosch A History of World Literature by Martin Puchner Literature: A World in Words by Jeremy Treglown The Story of Literature by Andrew Marr A History of the Novel by E.M. Forster The Norton History of Literature in the West by Margaret Ann Swanson and Martin Coyle The Columbia History of Literature in English by Wayne Booth and Alastair Fowler The Oxford History of English Literature by David Duff and Pat Rogers The Cambridge History of English Literature by Nicholas Roe and Nicholas Shrimpy A History of Persian Literature by Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iranian Literature edited by Ehsan Yarshater Modern Persian Literature by Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

Magazines:

World Literature Today Comparative Literature Studies Iranian Studies The Journal of Persianate Studies The Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication Literature Compass

Articles:

“The History of Iranian Literature” by Ehsan Yarshater (Encyclopædia Iranica) “World Literature” by David Damrosch (The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) “The History of the Novel” by Michael McKeon (The Oxford Handbook of the Novel) “The History of English Literature” by Nicholas Roe (The Cambridge History of English Literature) “The History of American Literature” by Jay Parini (The Norton History of American Literature)

Handbooks:

The Norton Handbook of Literature by Martin Coyle, Jahan Ramazani, and David Damrosch The Oxford Handbook of Literary Theory edited by David Lodge and Nigel Wood The Cambridge Companion to Literary Criticism edited by Raman Selden The Norton Companion to World Literature edited by Martin Coyle, Jahan Ramazani, and David Damrosch The Cambridge Companion to Iranian Literature edited by Ehsan Yarshater

 

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