Cinema and Movie

Film History  describes the development of a visual art created using film technologies that began in the late 19th century. The emergence of film as an artistic medium is not clearly defined. However, the public and commercial screening of ten Lumière brothers’ short films in Paris on December 28, 1895 can be considered a breakthrough in motion pictures .

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Different genres, including the horror film, emerged with many differences and enjoyed varying degrees of success over time .

The history of world cinema can be divided into three periods :

consonant period ( 1927-1895 )

Cinema was invented in 1895 by the Lumiere brothers in France. The first cinema films were very short and simple and often showed everyday life scenes. In this period, cinema was more of an entertainment phenomenon and its artistic capabilities were not yet fully known .

Among the most important filmmakers of this period, we can mention Georges Melis, Charles Petty, and Charlie Chaplin. Melis made creative and imaginative films using special effects. Petty directed the first feature films and Chaplin became one of the most popular actors by creating the enduring character of Charlie .

Natiq period ( 1927-1960 )

With the invention of film sound in 1927 , cinema entered a new era. Talkies quickly became popular and cinema became a mainstream medium .

During this period, cinema was recognized as a serious and independent art. Great directors such as Alfred Hitchcock, John Ford, and Orson Welles made films that had a profound impact on world cinema .

Modern period ( 1960 until now)

From the 1960s onwards, cinema faced many changes and developments. The filmmakers of this period were looking for new and creative styles and raised social and political issues more seriously in their films .

Among the most important filmmakers of this period, we can mention Antonioni, Farhadi, and Kubrick. With his own style, Antonioni explored loneliness and emptiness in modern life. With his social films, Farhadi deals with the daily issues of Iranian society. Kubrick deals with deep human concepts with his thought-provoking films .

Today, cinema is one of the most popular and influential media in the world. Movies can help us to better understand the world around us and communicate with different life issues .

The history of cinema goes back to the longest history of art in the world. This visual art was displayed by camera, animation and various other techniques. Below are some key points from the history of cinema :

  1. Early creators: The invention of the camera and image-related techniques in the late 19th century was the first step in the creation of cinema. People like Thomas Edison and Bradford Scott Exmoor benefited from the importance of this technology for cinema .
  2. The first films: The first motion pictures were produced by Bradford Scott Exmoor in the late 19th century. These films mainly showed short tests of everyday events .
  3. Advancement of technology: In the 20th century, cinema technology advanced greatly. The addition of sound to films (silent films to sound films) and then color (color films) changed the cinematic experience .
  4. Hollywood: The United States, especially Hollywood, became one of the most important film production centers in the world. Famous stars and big movies used to leave this area .
  5. Increasing technology : Technologies such as special effects, 3D movies and IMAX technology have been added to the cinema experience .

The history of cinema is still developing and changing and is known as an important art and industry in the world .


were used during the first introduction of cinema technology to Iran in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The first movie shows in Iran were presented by foreign travelers from Europe and America. These shows were often held in Tehran and other big cities .

One of the first cinema exhibitions in Iran named “Mirza Ebrahim Khan Saatchian” was established in Tehran in 1904 and presented cinema shows for Iranian audiences. This date is considered as the official beginning of the presence of cinema in Iran .

In the following decades, cinema became more widespread in Iran and with the development and evolution of cinema technology and the film industry, this art grew in different forms and forms in Iran .

The name of the world’s first film

The name of the world’s first film is “The Train Arrives at the Station”, which was made by the Lumière brothers in 1895 . This video is one minute and 40 seconds long and shows the scene of a train entering the station .

The movie “The Train Arrives at the Station” is one of the most important movies in the history of cinema. This film shows the invention of the cinematograph by the Lumière brothers, which was a revolutionary development in the film industry .

color cinema

The first period of color cinema, which is also called the “manual color period”, lasted from 1895 to 1935 . In this period, color films were colored using manual methods .

There were many different ways to color films by hand. One of the most common methods was “frame by frame painting”. In this method, each film frame was painted manually using oil paints or gouache .

Another method was “painting with a stencil”. In this method, a stencil or template was placed on the film and then the paint was sprayed on it. This method was faster and cheaper than the frame-by-frame painting method .

Manual film tinting methods had many limitations. These methods were time-consuming and costly and had low quality. For this reason, color films were more expensive and less expensive than black and white films during this period .

However, color films were popular because of their visual appeal. Color films were often used to show natural scenes and landscapes .

In 1935 , the Technicolor company produced the first full-color film using the “triple color” method. This movie was called “Telegraph Horses” and was quickly welcomed by people .

With the invention of the triple coloring method by Technicolor, the era of manual color cinema ended and the era of filmed color cinema began .

The golden age of cinema

The Golden Age of Cinema is a period in the history of cinema that started from the end of the era of silent cinema, that is, from the late 1920s and lasted until the 1960s . During this period, which is considered a fruitful period in the cinema industry, a large number of films were produced by Hollywood film studios .

During this period, Hollywood cinema reached its peak as the world’s filmmaking center. Hollywood movies, with their high quality, were welcomed all over the world .

During this era, great filmmakers such as Alfred Hitchcock, John Ford, and Charlie Chaplin created lasting works. The films of this era achieved great success in various fields, such as western films, crime films, drama films, and comedy films .

Some of the important films of the golden age of cinema are :

Citizen Kane ( 1941) by Orson Welles Casablanca ( 1942) by Michael Curtis Veronica’s Cabin ( 1946) by Alfred Hitchcock Crimes and Criminals ( 1949) by John Ford The Prince and the Cowboy ( 1955) by George Stevens The Prince and the Beggar ( 1955) by Walter Lang At the Dock ( 1954) by Marlon Brando North by Northwest ( 1959) by Alfred Hitchcock

Various factors played a role in the formation of the golden age of cinema. One of the most important factors was the development of cinema technologies. In this era, new technologies such as sound and color entered the cinema and provided new possibilities for filmmakers .

Another factor was the growth of the Hollywood film industry. During this period, Hollywood film studios started producing quality films with large investments .

The third factor was the emergence of movie stars. During this period, great actors such as Marlon Brando, Gregory Peck, and Elizabeth Taylor became world famous and played an important role in attracting cinema audiences .

The golden age of cinema is an important and influential period in the history of cinema. The works of this era are still receiving the attention and respect of cinema lovers .

History of Iranian cinema

The history of Iranian cinema also has a diverse and attractive path. Here are some key points from the history of Iranian cinema :

  1. The beginning of cinema in Iran: Cinema was introduced to Iran in the late 1890s and early 1900s . The first movie screenings were held by foreign travelers in Tehran and other cities .
  2. The era of the first Iranian films: The first film made in Iran called “Lori Dance” was shot by Mirza Ebrahim Khan Esfahani in 1900 . This period until the 1930s is known as the era of the first Iranian films .
  3. 1940s and 1950s: In this period, Iranian cinema was developed by directors such as Ali Doveika, Abolqasem Pouralam and Masoud Kimiaei . This era is famous for movies such as “Girls of the Revolution Street” .
  4. 1960s : The 1960s is known as a period of innovation in Iranian cinema. Directors like Dariush Mehrjooi and Masih Abdi had an important impact on Iranian cinema. The movie “Twilight” by Dariush Mehrjooi was very famous in this period .
  5. The 1970s and 1980s: these periods became famous with the prominence of cinema in festivals such as the Fajr Film Festival in Iran and the recognition of some international directors such as Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi in the world of cinema .
  6. Until now: Iranian cinema continues until now and is known as one of the most important film industries in the region and the world. This industry operates in various artistic and commercial fields by producing reliable films of international interest .

The history of Iranian cinema shows many efforts and initiatives that have had an important impact on world cinema .

History of film in Iran

The history of film in Iran begins at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century with the arrival of the first cameras and cinematographic shows in Iran. The first film made in Iran called “Lori Dance” was shot in 1900 by Mirza Ebrahim Khan Esfahani. This period is known as the era of the first Iranian films .

In the following decades, Iranian cinema was developed by different directors and artists and eventually reached more innovative and influential periods of cinema. These periods include the 1940s and 1950s with directors such as Ali Duyika, the 1960s with directors such as Dariush Mehrjooi, and the 1970s and 1980s with the prominence of directors such as Abbas Kiarostami and Jafar Panahi .

So far, Iranian cinema has had many successes in terms of art and culture, and a large number of Iranian films have won international awards and are recognized .

Cinematograph in Iran

was brought to Iran by photographer Mirza Ibrahim Khan Bashi in 1285 AH. Bashi photographer was an Iranian photographer and filmmaker who worked as a special court photographer during the time of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar. During a trip to France, he got acquainted with the cinematograph and bought one of it and brought it to Iran .

Photographer Bashi showed the first cinematograph films in Tehran and Tabriz. These films often showed everyday life scenes and were welcomed by the people .

With the arrival of the cinematograph in Iran, cinema was recognized as a new art and a new entertainment in Iran. In the following years, cinema in Iran grew rapidly and became one of the most popular folk arts .

In 1289 AH, the first cinema of Iran was opened in Tehran. This cinema was called “Laleh Cinema” and it was located on Alaa al-Doula Street (now Shariati Street). Laleh cinema was the place to show foreign films and quickly became one of the popular entertainment centers of Tehran people .

In the following years, other cinemas were opened in different cities of Iran. Cinema gradually became one of the most important cultural and artistic media in Iran .


The future of cinema and filmmaking is moving towards new and more creative forms with the emergence of new technologies .

Virtual reality and augmented reality technology can change the experience of watching movies in a completely new way. In the future, filmmakers can use these technologies to create immersive and interactive cinematic experiences .

Artificial intelligence technology can revolutionize various fields of filmmaking, including screenwriting, directing, and special effects. Artificial intelligence can help filmmakers make more creative and realistic films .

Online streaming technologies, such as Netflix and Amazon Prime Video, have made movies available to a wider range of audiences. This has increased competition in the film industry and filmmakers have been forced to make more creative and attractive films to attract audiences .

All in all, the future of cinema and filmmaking is moving towards new and more creative forms with the advent of new technologies. These technologies can change the experience of watching movies in a completely new way and create new opportunities for filmmakers .

Here are some predictions for the future of cinema and filmmaking :

Movies will become more inclusive and interactive. Artificial intelligence will play a more important role in filmmaking. Movies will become more personal and audience-oriented. Short films and mini-series will become more popular. Independent and artistic films will have more opportunities to be seen .

Of course, these predictions are only estimates and may change in the future. However, it is clear that cinema and filmmaking are moving towards new and more creative forms .


Books :

The history of cinema by Francis Coppola and David Hume Miller

The book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die by Steven Schwartz

Cinema Grammar Book by Anthony Burt

A History of Film Theory by David Bordwell and Chris Turd

The book Cinema and Philosophy written by Girard Depardieu

The book of Iranian cinema history written by Parviz Dawai

The book “100 best movies of Iranian cinema” written by Mohammad Bozornia

The book of film theory written by Dariush Mehrjooi

The book Iranian cinema during the war years written by Bahman Farmanara

The book Iranian cinema in the post-revolutionary years written by Dariush Mehrjooi

Magazines :

Sight & Sound Magazine

Cahiers du cinéma magazine

Film Comment magazine

Variety magazine

Premiere magazine

Film magazine

Cinema magazine

Cinema review magazine

Screenplay magazine

Our cinema magazine

Articles :

” Cinema and Reality” by Girard Depardieu

” Cinema Theory” by David Bordwell and Chris Turdo

” Cinema: a new language” written by Andre Bazen

” Cinema: The Seventh Art” by Roman Polanski

” Film: A Visual Experience” by Anthony Burt


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